Your central nervous system is made up of your brain and your spine. Your peripheral nervous system encompasses every other nerve in your body. Clearly, there are many different peripheral nerves in the body. These nerves can be injured by trauma or can become entrapped in musculoskeletal structures causing compression and irritation of the nerve. Diagnosing a damaged nerve is a process requiring a thorough history and physical examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with either nerve conduction testing and/or injection of the peripheral nerve. If the pain resolves when the peripheral nerve is blocked with local anesthetic, this proves the diagnosis. Common nerve blocks that are performed include occipital nerve blocks, which are performed to treat headaches, ilioinguinal and/or iliohypogastric nerve blocks which are used to treat pain following a hernia operation, and genitofemoral nerve blocks, which are performed on another nerve that can be damaged during a hernia operation, or pelvic surgical interventions. Intercostal nerve blocks are used to treat pain in the chest wall; typically related to post-herpetic neuralgia or following thoracic surgery (lung surgery). There are many other peripheral nerve blocks that can be performed. Each particular peripheral nerve has its own set of symptoms and proper diagnosis is based on knowledge of these specific nerve distributions and matching these to the patient’s symptoms. It is not uncommon for peripheral nerves to be damaged following surgery or trauma which in extreme cases can result in the development of a Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Type II (please see CRPS, Type II). Injured Peripheral nerves can be treated with an injection of local anesthetic and steroid and if that fails to provide lasting relief, neurolysis procedures can be performed to obtain more lasting pain control (cryoneurolysis or Pulsed RFD). More invasive interventional treatments that can be considered for recalcitrant peripheral nerve pain include peripheral nerve stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation. In these interventions the goal is to try to stimulate the nerve tissue and replace the pain with a soothing tingling sensation.