Damage to the joints can come from trauma, arthritis, or a latent effect from infection. Initial treatment should be conservative with anti-inflammatories and physical therapy (unless there is an active infection which would require treatment first). The treatment options for joint injections include steroid injections, viscosupplementation (basically the injection of a lubricant into the joint), and regenerative medicine techniques. Many joint injuries can be treated conservatively but some may require surgery or even replacement. Stem cell therapy is being used today to regenerate cartilage tissue within the joint in order to avoid further surgery including joint replacement.